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Definition A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase, which is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship, such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment.
Words We Use to Talk about Clauses Learning the various terms used to define and classify clauses can be a vocabulary lesson in itself. This digital handout categorizes clauses into independent and dependent clauses.
This simply means that some clauses can stand by themselves, as separate sentences, and some can't. Another term for dependent clause is subordinate clause: The subordinate clause is created by a subordinating conjunction or dependent word. An independent clause, "She is older than her brother" which could be its own sentencecan be turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent word or a subordinating conjunction in this case: The words essential and nonessential are sometimes used and mean the same thing as restrictive and nonrestrictive, respectively.
British grammarians will make this same distinction by referring to clauses with the terms defining and non-defining. A nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence; it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. Nonrestrictive clauses are often set apart from the rest of the sentence by a comma or a pair of commas if it's in the middle of a sentence.
Professor Villa, who used to be a secretary for the President, can type words a minute. Review the Notorious Confusables section on the difference between That and Which for additional clarification on the distinction between restrictive and nonrestrictive.
Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and of which.
Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. Review the section on Comma Usage for additional help in determining whether relative clauses are restrictive or nonrestrictive parenthetical or not and whether commas should be used to set them off from the rest of the sentence.
In a relative clause, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb remember that all clauses contain a subject-verb relationship and refers to relates to something preceding the clause. Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering him for years, had to be removed.
Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of clauses.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends. Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends. A relative clause that refers to or modifies entire clauses in this manner is called a sentential clause.
Sometimes the "which" of a sentential clause will get tucked into the clause as the determiner of a noun: Charlie might very well take a job as headmaster, in which case the school might as well close down.
Finally, everybody's favorite clause is the Santa Clause, which needs no further definition: Independent Clauses Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not clauses.
The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capable of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing and is especially helpful in avoiding sentence fragments and run-on sentences. Needless to say, it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought.
In the following sentence, for example, Bob didn't mean to do it, but he did it anyway. If the word "but" is missing from this sentence, the sentence would be called a comma splice: Furthermore, a long series of clauses of similar structure and length begins to feel monotonous, leading to what is called "Dick and Jane" or primer language after the kind of prose that we find in first grade textbooks or "primers".
See the section on Avoiding Primer Language for advice and exercises on combining sentences. It would also be helpful at this time to review the section on Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses.
Clauses are combined in three different ways: Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: Clauses thus connected are usually nicely balanced in length and import. Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never talked to her friends about it.
Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element one that cannot stand on its own through the use of a Subordinating Conjunction sometimes called a dependent word or a Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordinating word, it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else the independent clause for its meaning.
Again, see the section on Avoiding Primer Language. Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she never talked to her friends about it. Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir, because she was afraid they would make fun of her.
Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter what her friends said.While there are hundreds of books on writing film screenplays and stage plays, radio scripting isn't a widely known form. However, because radio is produced with the script in hand, it is important that the various cues for dialogue, music, and sound effects be able to quickly and clearly communicate the writer's intentions to the cast and crew for rehearsals and performance.
Bumblebees is a four minute film about a young man on the autism spectrum preparing for his first date. The film provides beneficial lessons about romantic relationships and empathy and a clear example of the interplay between symbol and metaphor in a documentary.
Mar 28, · These signposts ought to be everywhere within your paper, moving your reader between phrases and sentences in addition to paragraphs or larger chunks.
Sometimes multiple signposts are needed to guide a reader across the bridge, because of the complex relationship of those two ideas. How to Write a Good Topic Sentence. In this Article: Article Summary Writing a Successful Topic Sentence Planning Your Topic Sentences Avoiding Common Problems Sample Topic Sentences Community Q&A Perfecting the skill of writing topic sentences is essential to successful essay writing.
A topic sentence usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph and lets your reader know what to . Bridge’Sentences!!
The!firstsentence!of!anew!paragraph!has!agreatdeal!of!work!to!do.!Notonly!is!ita “topic!sentence”!signaling!whatthis!new!paragraph!will!do. How to Write a Paragraph.
In this Article: Article Summary Planning Your Paragraph Writing Your Paragraph Reviewing Your Paragraph Paragraph Help Community Q&A The practice of writing paragraphs is essential to good writing. Paragraphs help to break up large chunks of text and makes the content easier for readers to digest.