Biocon's first product to go to market was papainan enzyme found in papaya which is used to prevent beer from turning hazy. Inthe Irish Biocon was acquired by Unilever.
Charles Fourierinfluential early French socialist thinker Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity.
It has been claimed—though controversially—that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato  and Aristotle.
Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the UK Labour Party and is said to be a tradition going back years to the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball . The OwenitesSaint-Simonians and Fourierists provided a series of coherent analyses and interpretations of society.
They also, especially in the case of the Owenites, overlapped with a number of other working-class movements like the Chartists in the United Kingdom". Leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes.
The very first trade unions and consumers' cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term "socialism".
Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on David Ricardo 's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour—the cost of the labour essentially the wages paid that was required to produce the commodities.
The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property.
Robert Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed to.
Paris Commune The celebration of the election of the Commune on 28 March —the Paris Commune was a major early implementation of socialist ideas The Paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March more formally, from 28 March to 28 May The Commune elections held on 26 March elected a Commune council of 92 members, one member for each 20, residents.
It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular and highly-democratic social democracy. Because the Commune was only able to meet on fewer than 60 days in all, only a few decrees were actually implemented. These included the separation of church and state ; the remission of rents owed for the entire period of the siege during which payment had been suspended ; the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries ; the granting of pensions to the unmarried companions and children of National Guards killed on active service; and the free return, by the city pawnshopsof all workmen's tools and household items valued up to 20 francs, pledged during the siege.
The Commune nonetheless recognised the previous owner's right to compensation. The International Workingmen's Association united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon BlanquistsPhiladelphesEnglish trade unionists, socialists and social democrats.
The IWA held a preliminary conference in and had its first congress at Geneva in Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start.
The first objections to Marx came from the mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers called collectivists while in the International joined inthe First International became polarised into two camps headed by Marx and Bakunin respectively.
The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas. The followers of Bakunin were called collectivist anarchists and sought to collectivise ownership of the means of production while retaining payment proportional to the amount and kind of labour of each individual.
Like Proudhonists, they asserted the right of each individual to the product of his labour and to be remunerated for their particular contribution to production. By contrast, anarcho-communists sought collective ownership of both the means and the products of labour.
Errico Malatesta put it: In this way each will give to society all that his strength permits until enough is produced for every one; and each will take all that he needs, limiting his needs only in those things of which there is not yet plenty for every one".
It was a significant force in Italy and Spain in the early 20th century until it was crushed by the fascist regimes in those countries. In the United States, syndicalism appeared in the guise of the Industrial Workers of the Worldor "Wobblies", founded in Mick Mulvaney is the current director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
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