The effect of the masculinization on

The proportion of males has been rising slightly since that time primarily due to imbalances in Asia. In the s an abnormal increase in the proportion of male births was also observed in several countries throughout the world.

The effect of the masculinization on

Prenatal virilization[ edit ] In the prenatal period, virilization refers to closure of the perineumthinning and wrinkling rugation of the scrotumgrowth of the phallusand closure of the urethral groove to the tip of the penis.

In this context, masculinization is synonymous with virilization.

The effect of the masculinization on

Prenatal virilization of genetic females and undervirilization of genetic males are common causes of ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions. High[ edit ] Prenatal virilization of a genetically female fetus can occur when an excessive amount of androgen is produced by the fetal adrenal glands or is present in maternal blood.

Virilization - Wikipedia

In the severest form of congenital adrenal hyperplasiacomplete masculinization of a genetically female fetus results in an apparently normal male anatomy with no palpable testes. More often, the virilization is partial and the genitalia are ambiguous.

It can also be associated with progestin-induced virilisation. Low[ edit ] Undervirilization can occur if a genetic male cannot produce enough androgen or the body tissues cannot respond to it. Extreme undervirilization occurs when no significant androgen hormones can be produced or the body is completely insensitive to androgens.

Both result in a female body.

Choose a topic

Partial undervirilization produces ambiguous genitalia part-way between male and female. The mildest degree of undervirilization may be a slightly small penis.

Examples of undervirilization are androgen insensitivity syndrome5 alpha reductase deficiencyand some forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. These effects include growth of the penis and testes, accelerated growth, development of pubic hairand other androgenic hair of face, torso, and limbs, deepening of the voiceincreased musculature, thickening of the jaw, prominence of the neck cartilage, and broadening of the shoulders.

Abnormal childhood virilization[ edit ] Virilization can occur in childhood in both males and females due to excessive amounts of androgens. Typical effects of virilization in children are pubic hairaccelerated growth and bone maturation, increased muscle strengthacneand adult body odor. In males, virilization may signal precocious pubertywhile congenital adrenal hyperplasia and androgen producing tumors usually of the gonads or adrenals are occasional causes in both sexes.

In adolescent or adult females[ edit ] Virilization in females can manifest as clitoral enlargement, increased muscle strength, acne, hirsutismfrontal hair thinning, deepening of the voice, and menstrual disruption due to anovulation.

Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body. Most of the changes of virilization are produced by androgens. Related to masculinizing: masculinization, The putative action of tamoxifen and letrozole was found more or less similar for their masculinizing effects; however, the effect of letrozole was more potent suggesting that the chemical could be used in reproductive management and sex reversal of such important aquaculture species. A masculinization of the stress response is likely the result of modulatory actions of testosterone on the HPA axis (4, 5, 48). These effects may involve multiple mechanisms, including decreasing cellular activation in the hypothalamus after stress exposure, decreasing CRF expression, and increasing glucocorticoid receptor expression to promote.

Androgen -producing tumors of the.A masculinization of the stress response is likely the result of modulatory actions of testosterone on the HPA axis (4, 5, 48). These effects may involve multiple mechanisms, including decreasing cellular activation in the hypothalamus after stress exposure, decreasing CRF expression, and increasing glucocorticoid receptor expression to promote.

If a rodent is exposed to androgens two things occur: behavioral defeminization and behavioral masculinization o Behavioral defeminization refers to the organizational effect of androgens that prevents the animal from displaying female sexual behavior in adulthood This is accomplished by suppressing development of neural circuits %(1).

The effect of the masculinization on

Related to masculinizing: masculinization, The putative action of tamoxifen and letrozole was found more or less similar for their masculinizing effects; however, the effect of letrozole was more potent suggesting that the chemical could be used in reproductive management and sex reversal of such important aquaculture species.

A masculinization of the stress response is likely the result of modulatory actions of testosterone on the HPA axis (4,5,48).

Facial Masculinization

These effects may involve multiple mechanisms, including decreasing cellular activation in the hypothalamus after stress exposure, decreasing CRF expression, and increasing glucocorticoid receptor expression to promote. A range of masculinization of 46,XX individuals with CAH can occur, from “mild” clitoral enlargement to ambiguous genitalia to development of a penis and fusion of the labioscrotal folds to form a scrotum.

masculinization - the abnormal development of male sexual characteristics in a female (usually as the result of hormone therapies or adrenal malfunction) masculinisation, virilisation, virilization.

Female to male transition – Masculinization procedures | Dr Turowski - Plastic Surgery Chicago