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Sources of exposure, health effects and policy implications By Kathryn M. According to the World Health Organizationlead exposure accounts for an estimateddeaths a year, with developing countries facing the greatest burden. In the United States, the percentage of children experiencing high levels of lead exposure has declined substantially The societal effects that lead towith the number of confirmed cases falling from approximatelyto nearly 13, in Despite these reductions, lead exposure remains a critical public health issue given its widespread damaging effects.
Lead exposure harms every organ system in the bodybut the most serious damage occurs in the central nervous system. According to the U.
The neurological effects of lead exposure are irreversible and, in the long term, lead also has been implicated in the development of renal diseases, anemia, depleted Vitamin D levels and persistent gastrointestinal pain as well as hypertension.
Additionally, since lead becomes stored in the body through teeth and bones, lead poisoning among pregnant women may expose growing fetuses to lead as it remobilizes into the blood and crosses the placenta. Children are a particularly vulnerable population with respect to lead exposure because the developing brain is more susceptible to its effects than the adult brain.
Also, children may come into more frequent contact with lead via hand-to-mouth exposure with lead-contaminated soil, house dust or toys. In extreme cases, it can result in convulsions, coma or even death.
In its early stages, high levels of lead exposure in children can cause lethargy, stomach cramps and irritability but can progress rapidly into more severe symptoms, including vomiting, clumsiness and seizures. Perhaps more concerning than extreme cases of lead poisoning are lower blood lead levels in childrenwhich cause little to no outward physical ailments but are associated with enduring neurological and behavioral effects.
Even in cases of very low lead exposures, neurodevelopmental deficits have been observed, leading scientists to conclude that no level of lead exposure is safe for children.
A substantial body of research has explored the damaging effects of lead exposure in childhood. Deficits in intellectual functioning, academic performance, problem solving skills, motor skills, memory and executive functioning are consistently observed in lead-exposed children, in addition to an increased likelihood of experiencing ADHD and having conduct problems in childhood, and decreased brain volume in adulthood.
Because lead exposure has been linked with altered executive functioning and impulse controlresearchers have also begun to explore links between childhood lead exposure and different risky behaviors in adulthood, including criminal activitysubstance use and sexually transmitted infections.
Based on the new threshold, an estimatedU. Although these numbers represent a substantial decline compared to population rates in the s, racial and socioeconomic disparities still persist, with minority children and children in low-income families experiencing higher average blood lead levelslikely due to differences in living conditions, housing and nutrition.
Because calcium decreases lead absorption in the bodymalnourished children face a greater burden of disease. Eliminating racial and class disparities in lead exposure is a CDC priority. Cities with industrial histories — Baltimore, Cincinnati, and Chicago, for example — have long histories of exposure to lead in the air, soil and water.
Although the emergency in Flint has brought national attention to lead in drinking water, lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust are the most hazardous sources of lead in the U. Inlead was banned in paint and other consumer goods made and sold in this country.
BioMed Research International, Researchers assessed the long-term impact of early childhood exposure to lead on performance in math, science and reading among elementary and junior high school students using surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Performance, as well as testing data from Detroit Public Schools.
Analyses found that high blood level in early childhood was strongly associated with poorer academic outcomes for children in grades 3, 5 and 8. This issue brief from the National Center for Healthy Housing provides recent research on the dangers posed by low-level lead exposure and the resulting financial and social costs.
The report shows that lead exposure occurs more frequently in low-income children and children of color and is an important factor in the educational achievement gap between children of different racial and income groups.
Environmental Health Perspectives, JulyVol. We examined data collected from 1, children who participated in seven international population-based longitudinal cohort studies, followed from birth or infancy until 5—10 years of age.
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6 Treatment of. The United States sends election monitors around the world to help discourage fraudulent balloting. But, here at home, it has largely turned a blind eye to the possibility that fraudulent voting by noncitizens could influence the outcome of an election.
The history of comic books is filled with titillation that proves less than shocking today. After birth, parental drinking can lead to child abuse and numerous other impacts on the child’s social, psychological and economic environment. The the value of goods and services delivered to address the harmful effects of alcohol.
The trend of increasing ethanol use in the US is expected to continue in the next few decades as a result of increasing oil prices and the Energy Independence and Security Act of which established a new Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) that requires up to 36 billion .