I bought an apple for 5 cents, spent the evening polishing it, and sold it the next day for 10 cents. With this I bought two apples, spent the evening polishing them,and sold them for 2O. And so it went until I amassed What does it all mean?
Marxism Save Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialismto analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggles in systemic economic change.
According to Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed proletariat —a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie —the ruling class that owns the means of production and extract their wealth through appropriation of the surplus product profit produced by the proletariat.
This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of productionresults in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness.
This crisis culminates in a proletarian revolution and eventually leads to the establishment of socialism —a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use.
As the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would ultimately transform into a communist society ; a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, though now there is no single definitive Marxist theory.
Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has then led to contradictory conclusions.
Marxism has had a profound and influential impact on global academia and has expanded into many fields such as archaeologyanthropology , media studies , political sciencetheaterhistorysociologyart history and theorycultural studieseducationeconomicsethicscriminologygeographyliterary criticismaestheticsfilm theorycritical psychology and philosophy.
It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of productioninfluences all other social phenomena—including social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics, and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a base and superstructure.
As forces of productioni.
As Karl Marx observed: From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution". Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution.
Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theorysocialism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity. A socialist economy would not base production on the creation of private profits, but on the criteria of satisfying human needs—that is, production would be carried out directly for use.
As Friedrich Engels said: In the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations All constituent features of a society social classes, political pyramid, ideologies are assumed to stem from economic activity, an idea often portrayed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure.
The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence.
The base includes the material forces of production, that is the labour and material means of production and relations of production, i. From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness" of political and legal institutions that derive from the economic base that conditions the superstructure and a society's dominant ideology.
Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions and thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes".
Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production: Criticism of capitalism According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin"the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine".
Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes.
In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it. Under that condition, surplus value the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer is synonymous with the term "surplus labour", thus capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker.
In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved and because workers do not own the means of production, they must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life.
The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for.
However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory.
Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity German:As the materialistic thinking in society developed step by step with the advancement of science and the productive system, and through various changes taking place within the social system, and got enriched with accumulation of knowledge of human history, Marxism or dialectical materialism came into being on the basis of certain general truths.
Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence by G. A.
Cohen is a key work for the philosophical school of Analytical Marxism. In it, Cohen advances a sophisticated technological-determinist interpretation of Marx "in which history is, fundamentally, the growth of human productive power, and forms of society rise and fall according as they enable or.
Stages of Development. Learning Objectives physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. Mirroring Erikson’s stages, lifespan development is divided into different stages that are based on age.
We will discuss prenatal, infant, child, adolescent, and adult development. Social supports through family and. Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production: Primitive communism: as in co-operative tribal societies.
Slave society: a development of tribal to city-state; aristocracy is born. Feudalism: aristocrats are the . Historical materialism builds upon the idea of historical progress that became popular in philosophy during the Enlightenment, which contends that the development of human society has progressed through a series of stages, from hunting and gathering, through pastoralism and cultivation, to commercial society.
It is believed by Marxist theorists that the proletariat goes through various stages of development. In the beginning they struggle against the bourgeois, then this metamorphosizes itself into suffering, and the finally through the growth of the masses, victory arises for the common man.