A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell. Central Vacuole A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. Centromere Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached Chelicerata Horseshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions, mites etc. Chelonia turtles and tortoises Choanocyte specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge Chordata Animals with notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, a postanal tail, and pharyngeal gill slits at some time in their lives.
Huxley English biologist, philosopher, social critic, lecturer, essayist, and nonfiction writer. Tenacious and articulate, Huxley became the Victorian era's popularizer of Darwinian evolution, the most fiercely debated issue of his generation.
Called "Darwin's Bulldog," Huxley was one of the theory's first adherents and, in such works as Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, made the first clear statements as to man's place in the evolutionary scheme. Although he received only two years of formal education during his childhood, he read science, history, and philosophy voraciously; by the time he received a medical apprenticeship to Charing Cross Hospital at the age of 15, he had mastered German, French, and Italian and had read Charles Lyell's Principles of GeologyWilliam Hamilton on logic, and much of Thomas Carlyle.
After studying as a free scholar at Charing Cross, Huxley received top honors in chemistry, anatomy, and physiology and took his medical degree from the University of London inhaving published his first article—the identification of a structure in the human hair membrane, still known as Huxley's layer.
At 21, he became assistant surgeon on the Royal Navy frigate the H.
Rattlesnake, which charted the waters between the Great Barrier Reef and the Australian coast. During the nearly five-year journey Huxley collected and closely studied specimens of marine invertebrates.
The research results were regularly contributed to the Westminster Vertebrate zoology study guide essay and, when he returned to England, Huxley found that he had become accepted into scientific circles. Infollowing the birth of his first son and after recovering from an illness which took him to Switzerland, Huxley finally saw the publication of The Oceanic Hydrozoa, a description of his observations during the Rattlesnake voyage.
In that same year, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, he published his Croonian lecture, "On the Theory of the Vertebrate Skull," and was appointed secretary of the Geological Society. However, far more significant in terms of his long-term reputation were his and reviews of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in the London Times and Westminster Review.
Vertebrate zoology study guide essay book stated convictions toward which Huxley himself had been leaning, and it soon became a significant influence upon his career as a lecturer and writer. Huxley began publicly to advocate Darwin's theory of evolution.
In June at the British Association meeting at Oxford, Huxley debated Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce, advancing Darwinian evolution as the best explanation for species-diversity, and in he gave a series of lectures on Darwin's theories to an audience of workingmen at the Royal School of Mines; shorthand notes of these lectures would later be published as On Our Knowledge of the Causes of the Phenomena of Organic Nature The following decades showed his abilities as a preacher of the gospel of evolution coupled with a credo based upon a view toward traditional religious belief that Huxley called "agnostic"—a term coined by him to describe his position against holders of orthodox faith.
In the decade following the publication of his first full-length book inEvidence as to Man's Place in Nature, Huxley found increasing popularity as a lecturer, educator, and public advocate for the emerging new science; this led to his winning numerous offices and honors and to the writing of several essays.
One of his most significant achievements in was his helping to organize with eight fellow scientists, including John Tyndall, Joseph Hooker, and Herbert Spencer, a dinner group known as the X Club. For nearly thirty years they gathered before each meeting of the Royal Society to discuss and plan the politics for the advancement of English science.
Known as the "inner cabinet of science," they virtually shaped the direction of scientific affairs in mid-Victorian England and insured continuing contact among eminent researchers and educators.
As Huxley became an eminent member of the scientific community, his commitments grew. In addition to his salaried appointments as inspector of salmon fisheries and as dean of the Royal College of Science, Huxley was also a fellow of the Royal Society, the Linnean Society, the Zoological Society, and the Royal College of Surgeons, as well as an honorary member or fellow of a dozen or more other scientific societies.
At various times he was president of the Royal Society, the office that he ranked as his highest honor, of the Geological Society, the Paleontographical Society, the Ethnological Society, and the British Association. He was elected to London's first school board and served as a trustee of the British Museum, received the distinguished Copley and Darwin medals, and started a science column in the Saturday Review that gave rise to two influential journals, the Natural History Review and Nature.
In the midst of rapidly increasing professional responsibilities, including ongoing research and writing of textbooks, Huxley continued writing in such varied areas as biology and evolution, zoology, education reform, and politics.
Recurring problems of ill health worsened, however, untilwhen continuing illness forced his retirement from all official appointments. The writings that followed, such as Evolution and Ethicstake on a pessimistic tone; this quality is noted by several modern critics, including James G. Paradis, who, in T.
Man's Place in Naturefinds that Huxley's "philosophical outlook underwent a gradual transition from youthful Romanticism. Major Works Huxley was a prolific writer whose contributions to Victorian culture and science span anatomy, marine biology, zoology, and paleontology, as well as philosophy, religion, education and politics.
Throughout his career, he contributed substantially to facilitating the kind of scientific education he espoused through the publication of textbooks, such as his A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animalswhich remained the standard text for over twenty-five years. But his Evidence as to Man's Place in Naturewhich appeared five years after Darwin's Origin of Species, is one of his most important and influential works.
In it, Huxley combines comparative anatomy, embryology, and paleontology to demonstrate man's kinship with lower animals, especially apes. Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature extended Darwin's ideas in remarkably simple layman's language and, for the first time, explicitly applied evolutionary theory to human beings, which Darwin, for the most part, had avoided.
Huxley attacked views such as those of Lamarck and Robert Chambers, but he also critiqued Darwin's view that evolution is a gradual process. Rather, Huxley thought that an evolving lineage may undergo rapid "saltations.
Huxley also explored the ethical implications of his and Darwin's theories. His lecture "On the Physical Basis of Life," given before an Edinburgh audience at the heart of Scotch Presbyterianism, flatly rejects all theories of vitalism and spontaneity by declaring that all life forces are determined by chemical ones; a combination of elements produces protoplasm, the physical basis for life, and the mind itself is but "the result of molecular forces.
Indeed, later writings such as Science and Morals proclaim the unromantic view that morality actually resists the natural order, that it is "a real and living belief in that fixed order of nature which sends social disorganization on the track of immorality.
Huxley frequently locked horns with the orthodox religious establishment and was known as the "bishop eater" for his provocative and challenging attacks on defenders of biblical literalism; many—most notably Dr.
Henry Wace, Archbishop Wilberforce, and W. Magee, bishop of Peterborough—criticized his position on religion. But Huxley's strong impact upon English education and his effective leadership among his fellow scientists were recognized throughout his career.
He was acquainted with such figures as Joseph Hooker, Charles Lyell, Herbert Spencer, and Charles Darwin, and his leadership in the English scientific community and as a popularizer of science shaped modern science and scientific practice.Study Guide for Biology Zoology Exam IV This is a guide to HELP you prepare for the Exam.
It is not the exam. Describe the major changes in the heart and circulatory system among the vertebrate classes. Describe the major changes in the brain among the vertebrate classes.
Study Guide . Zoology (also known as animal science) is the branch of biology devoted to the study of animal life. It covers areas ranging from the structure of organisms to the subcellular unit of life. Some zoologists are interested in the biology of particular groups of animals.
Oct 14, · View and download zoology essays examples. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your zoology essay. Vertebrate Zoology - Evolution How.
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy A Laboratory Dissection Guide Document for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy A Laboratory Dissection Guide terms and parts of the pig ken kardong is a professor in the zoology Study Guide,The Death Quarantine The Death Trilogy 1 By John W Vance. BIOL Vertebrate Zoology Spring READING GUIDE: Jan. 17 & 22 Non-vertebrate Chordates, “Agnatha”, & Early Jawed Fishes Our textbook contains a lot of detailed information and scientific terminology. Use the following questions to guide your reading. This Reading Guide will serve as a useful study tool for you. Be prepared to share your answers to these questions in class. Start studying Zoology Final Essays. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Create. Log in Sign up. Log in Sign up. 15 terms. Brenton_Higgins. Zoology Final Essays. STUDY. Vertebrate with 2 chambered heart. Amphibians. Vertebrate .
View Full Essay. The origin of birds from dinosaurs is a fascinating study. The discovery of the first fossil protobird, the Archaeopteryx started most of the. Apply Now. About. Zoology is a life science degree that provides you with a thorough background in the biology of animals.
This program equips you with the foundational knowledge needed for veterinary school, or any other other health-care related career. The Student Study Guide helps students learn and recall information through concept maps, chapter summaries, word roots, and a variety of interactive activities including multiple-choice, short-answer essay, art labeling, and graph-interpretation questions.
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